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War Blog - Print And Play Rules

Last updated 15 June 2020.

Please print this out to printer for classic three column rule set.


Below are the simplified print and play rules for the warblog games. They are currently under development and not fully fit for play and as such should only currently be used for guidance. You are advised to leverage what works for you, especially when it comes to odds calulations. If something appears vague and you would like a ruling, please use the sites forum.


  • 3.0 Movement
    • 3.1 Stacking
    • 3.2 Zones Of Control
    • 3.3 Air Insertion
    • 3.4 Air Extraction
    • 3.5 Exploitation
  • 4.0 Disruptions
  • 7.0 The Turn
    • 7.1 Turn Structure
  • 8.0 Objectives
    • 8.1 Capturing Objectives
    • 8.2 Destroying Objectives
  • 9.0 Air Power
    • 9.1 Air To Ground Attacks
    • 9.2 Air Superiority
    • 9.3 Air Superiority Resolution
  • 11.0 Combat
    • 11.1 Unit Modifications In Combat
    • 11.2 Combat Results
    • 11.3 Example Combat Calculation
    • 11.4 Sieges
    • 11.5 Ranged Fire
    • 11.6 Attrition
  • 12.0 Reinforcements
  • 13.0 Print And Play
    • 13.1 Supporting Counters
    • 13.2 Print And Play Rules
    • 13.3 Additional Requirements

1.0 Units

The list of units below represents what you might find in any given game. However, many of the units are special and wont be included in many games. The staple units are infantry, armour, mechanised infantry, motorised infantry, artillery and air defence. Standard designations are strength, defence and movement. Other factors will be detailed in the following sections specific to the unit type.

1.1 Infantry

Infantry units are the basic fighting unit and represent men on foot. They generally have a movement of 3. They are weak against armour and mechanised infantry. See Unit Match Rules x.x.x

1.2 Mechanised Infantry

Mechanised infantry are troops in armoured personnel carriers that are equipped with mounted machine guns and some light cannons. They generally have a movement of 6. They are assumed to de-bus for combat but have fire support from their vehicles and are more powerful against infantry but vulnerable to armour. See Unit Match Rules x.x.x

1.3 Armour

Armour is probably the most powerful unit on the board. They generally have a movement of 6. Armour gains a bonus against all other unit types that are not stacked with other armour units although they are weak against infantry in urban areas. See Unit Match Rules x.x.x

1.4 Recce

Reconnaissance units are rare. Currently they are not configured but will offer artillery bonuses to all units within a specific radius. This rule is not in play yet and currently Reconnaissance units offer no benefits.

1.5 Amphibious

Amphibious can cross rivers. They can also carry out naval landings. Naval landings are a one way process. If they begin in a sea hex then they can move to a sea or a land hex, but once they have landed they cannot enter a sea hex again. I am still unclear how they work but that’s good enough for now.

1.6 Marine

Marines can make naval landings and move about on the sea, both landing and departing.

1.7 Anti Tank

Anti-tank units represent a range of unit types from small companies with anti-tank rocket launchers through to larger anti-tank gun teams and motorised anti-tank elements. They all share a multiple bonus against armour and mechanised infantry.

Anti-tank units have a default range of three hexes unless specified on the counter.

Anti-tank combat is resolved separatly to all other combat and is target specific.

Anti-tank vs tank only units have their strength multiplied by 10.

Anti-tank vs a mix of armour and mechanised infantry have their strength multiplied by 4.

In all other situations their strength is as specific on the counter which will generally be 1.

In defence, if an anti-tank unit is present and it is being attacked by a stack with armour or mechanised infantry its defence will by multiplied by 5.

See Unit Match Rules

1.8 Airmobile

Airmobile units are not written into the rules yet but they will able to move on and off the map. They will appear at the foot of the screen near air units and will be able to be placed anywhere on the map. They will also be able to leave the map. Once they have left the map they will not be available again for 2-4 turns depending on how the rules pan out. Once landed they will essentially behave as infantry. They will not be able to hop about the map.

1.9 Paratrooper

Paratrooper rules don’t exist at the moment although the unit is in play in a number of scenarios. They will be available near the air pool in the footer of the screen and will be able to land anywhere on the map. Once they land they will behave as infantry.

1.10 Rocket

Rockets are an advanced form of artillery. They have standard strength, defence and movement factors plus a range factor. To fire rockets the player just moved them onto the target unit. Rockets tend to have a high strength factor but a very low defence factor. Rockets can be manhandled or motorised, i.e. 3 or 6 movement.

Artillery units recieve 2.5 times the damage recieved from air strikes.

1.11 Missile

Missile units are not in play at the moment but will include long range missiles such as SCUD's.

1.12 Signals

Signal units have no actions yet but will be able to interdict enemy orders and jam radio signals. This will be reflected by units not moving when requested. it is anticipated that the factor will be a 1% for each strength point within a radius. So a 4 strength signals unit will mean that when an enemy unit is first moved it will have a 4% of going straight to 0 movement to reflect the jamming. They will also effect air defence.

1.13 Special Forces

Special forces are just like infantry expect they can cross rivers and go to sea. They are also able to target command elements, move through enemy zones of control and have a strength modifier of x3 against stacks of 10 or less.

1.14 Air Defence

Air defence includes machine gun batteries but will also include rocket batteries. There is currently no distinction but when there is, only rockets will be able to fire at bombers. Air defence works when air attacks come in. Each air defence unit has a range factor. If the air strike is targeting a hex that is with the units radius then it has a chance of shooting that unit down. the match is quite fiddly but essentially a 3 strength air defence uint will have a 3 in 70 chance of having an effect on an air strike. If there are multiple air defence units their factors are added. Each air unit is rolled for. If the roll is successful then there is a second roll to determine the result which ranges from 3/4 effect, 1/2 effect, 1/4 effect, aborted and shot down.

1.15 Amphibious Mechanized Infantry

Amphibious mechanized infantry is the same as amphibious except it id mechanised. They can cross rivers and carry out naval landings.

1.16 Engineers

Engineers have no rules written yet but will be able to lay mines, build and destroy bridges, build fortifications and possibly other things.

1.17 Motorised

Infantry in lorries. They de-bus for operational matters such as conflict.

1.18 Artillery

Artillery has ranged fire and can fire at an enemy unit up to the range indicated on the units top right, usually about 4 hexes.

Artillery fire is calculated separately to regular combat but can be carried out at the same time. When artillery fire is processed in print and play games you can target two units per hex of your choise Calulate damage using the table below:
  • 1:4 or less = 1D6 - 5
  • 1:3 = 1D6 - 4
  • 1:2 = 1D6 - 3
  • 1:1 = 1D6 - 2
  • 2:1 = 1D6 - 1
  • 3:1 = 1D6
  • 4:1 = 1D6 + 1
  • 5:1 = 1D6 + 2
  • 6:1 = 1D6 + 3
  • 7:1 or greater = 1D6 + 4
Artillery damage is reduced against armour, mechanised and insurgents:
  • Armour: divide by 8
  • Mechanised: divide by 4
  • Irregulars and Insurgents: divide by 2
Artillery cannot move and fire. To fire, an artillery unit must have all its movement points, ie, be considered deployed.

Artillery units on their own facing ground units defend at their defend value/5 making them easily over run by ground forces.

Artillery units recieve 2.5 times the damage recieved from air strikes.

Off-table artillery is maintained off the map and can effect any hex on the map but otherwise operated in the same way as regular artillery.

1.19 Mountain Infantry

Mountain infantry has a good movement rate in mountains.

1.20 Irregular

Irregular units represent guerillas, terrorists, partisans and skirmishing units. They have these special rules:
  • In combat against stacks with less than 5 strength, or equal, they have their strength factor multiplied by 4.
  • In defence they will retreat unharmed 75% of the time.
  • Ignore ZOC's.
  • Enemy units ignore DR but still get 3 depressions.
  • Increased urban defence.
    • Village: Def x 2
    • Town or Light Urban: Def x 4
    • City or Dense Urban: Def x 6
    • Conurbation: Def x 8
These rules are designed to reflect what I think is commonly called insurgency and counter insurgency. I think its playable.

All irregulars will have 1 1 strength and defence factors (although not all do at the moment).

However, because of the way they operate they can target smallish units and engage highly effectively, because they are using the element of stealth and surprise. THey cant fight strong units, but they can fight small units that are marginally stronger than they are. As such they will be ideal as harassing small companies.

The retreat feature represents their ability to delay and deter an advance. As such, you can use an irregular unit to hold a a road and slow the advance of an enemy unit down. Even very large units. And even at very poor odds, especially in mountains etc. they could cause depressions on large units.

By ignoring ZOC's irregular units will be able to pass through thin lines and cause chaos, further slowing advancing units down and eventually threatening secure objectives and supply lines.

However, in combat, irregular units cannot force a unit to retreat. If they attack at 5-1 odds or more and get a DR the result is still 3 depression and the unit does not have to retreat. However, they can still fail a morale check and rout. (morale rules not yet in play)

I think this is quite important in modern warfare where most conflicts involve battles against irregular units

1.21 Insurgents

Insurgent units represent small units that carry out acts such as car bombs, kidnappings, suicide bombings, assassinations and other small scale targeted operations. They represent a significant challenge to regular military formations and are hard to kill. In rule play they can attack a single unit in a hex They will also be able to target objective hex's but that is not currently supported. when you move your insurgent unit into an enemy hex you will enter a variant of the main combat screen where you will be required to select a single unit that you are targeting. The probability of success is 50% which is then reduced by 5% for every defence factor of the target unit above 1. If you succeed the target unit will loose 3 depressions. When attacked insurgent units have a base 90% evasion chance This will be modified by special forces and some other units but is not currently active at the moment. An exchange will result in the insurgents retreating and cost nothing for the attacking unit. an DR or DE result will result in the insurgents retreating. Insurgent units represent the genesis of war and will be used in many scenarios where combat is not symmetrical including countries heading into revolution etc..

1.22 Medical

Medical units are not in play but will be able to heal units to 1 greater than their total disruption.

1.23 Supply

Supply units will be able to keep units in supply. Supply rules are not active yet.

1.24 Military Police

Military police have no extra abilities but are defined for scenarios where military police and general police units are historically used.

1.25 Bomber

Bombers can bomb hexes and are not subject to air defence that is not missile based.

1.26 Helicopter

Unsure how helicopter rules will work.

1.27 Bridging

Bridging elements will be able to lay bridges. Not in play currently.

1.28 Radar

Radar will increase air defence across the board.

1.29 Command

command units have three factors, combat, morale and movement. Their combat factor is applied in attack or defence as a 10% per factor bonus. So a 2 point command element will increase a units strength or defence by 20%. Command units have a command radius, generally 2 hexes and can only pass that bonus to units within its command.

1.30 Air

Air units can carry out ground assaults and are subject to air defence fire.

1.31 Naval

Marine covers boats. This section might be expanded to cover a wider range of boats, ships and submarines et. Currently naval units have three base factors, strength, defence and movement, plus an additional range factor for naval bombardment. Further development will separate warships, transports, aircraft carriers, submarines and motor boats etc.

1.32 SAM

SAM units (Surface to Air Missiles) work in the same way as air defence units except they are better and can hit strategic bombers which air defence units cannot.

1.33 Refugees

Refugees are featured in certain scenarios. If they are present they will either be directly on the board or as latent units within a specific hex. For example, a refugee unit could be in a city but is not active until an enemy unit enters the city or engages in combat in the city. Once activated they work as normal units although they only have 2 movement and most terrain costs them 2 movement points. Mountains cost them 3 mmovements points and so they cannot move into mountains except along roads.

1.34 Police

Police units are used where conflict is lower level and more along the lines of civil disorder. In particular they will be in play where there are protesters. However, they can be used in other instances, for example, in the conquest of a city. Police units recieve specific combat values when used in play against protesters.

1.35 Protesters

Protesters are used in scenarios that replicate periods of civil disorder. Protesters have attack and defence factors of 0. However, when protesters are in combat with the police they get a 1 attack value. However, when they defend against police they recieve a defend factor of 0.25.

1.36 Air Transport

Air transport units appear in the air pool and allow you to carry out air extraction of small units. They can extract special forces, paratroopers and air mobile units of 5 strength or less and infantry units of strength 2 or less. Once unsed they are not available for 4+ turns. when available again they will appear in the air pool. they do not accrue depression points.

1.37 Smugglers

Smuggler units represent the full bredth of modern smuggling operations including arms, drugs and people. They represent criminal gangs or militants smuggling supplies etc. They have no combat and defensive factors and are used in scenarios where smugglers are operating such as along borders.

1.38 Tribes

Tribes are none combat units and encompass nomadic peoples such as the Tuareg.

1.39 Air Assets

Air assets are aircraft on the ground and facilities support such as tankers, maintenance equipment, ammunition dumps and hangers etc. They differ from air units in that they are unsed when air bases are targets in scenarios. They are still currently under development. Essentially they will have no movement and will be destroyed if routed or forced to retreat etc. but that aspect is not currently functional.

1.40 Amphibious Armour

Amphibious Armour.

1.41 Amphibious Anti Tank

Amphibious Armour.

1.42 Amphibious Air Defence

Amphibious Armour.

1.43 Amphibious Infantry

Amphibious Armour.

1.44 Amphibious Engineers

Amphibious Armour.

1.45 Drones

Drones are air units. They cannot carry out air superioroty operation and are easier to shoot down by ground units.

2.0 Terrain

The various terrain features are dealt with here. Terrain is roughly built up of hex tiles that you see on the map, settlement types that sit on top of terrain hexes, features such as ports, military bases and palaces and defences such as mines, barbed wire and forts etc..

2.1 Terrain Types

Terrain defence and basic movement is detailed below. Units are aggregated to basic types. Please refer to unit specification for special rules such as marines, mountain troops and irregulars etc.


1 1 1 1


1 1 1 2


1 1 1 1


1 2 3 3


2 2 4 5


1 2 3 3


3 3 0 0


1 3 3 4


1 3 3 2


4 3 7 7


5 0 0 0


1 2 1 1


0 1 1 1


1 1 1 1


1 2 1 1


1 0 0 0


2 3 6 6


3 1 1 1


2 2 1 1


1 2 2 3


3 3 3 3

2.2 Settlements

Settlements are classified into four types, villages, towns, cities and conurbations.

2.2.1 Villages

Villages off a 10% defensive bonus.

2.2.2 Towns

Towns off a 50% defensive bonus.

2.2.3 Cities

Cities off a 200% defensive bonus.

2.2.4 Conurbations

Conurbations off a 300% defensive bonus.

2.3 Features

Features are largely descriptive and have no direct effect on game play. Feature symbols are shown on the map in the top left of the hex in a small round circle. Features are:
  • Airport
  • Assembly Point
  • Barracks
  • Base
  • Beach Head
  • Camp
  • Check Point
  • Communication Point
  • Dam
  • Depot
  • Embassy
  • Factory
  • Government Building
  • Hydro Plant
  • Landing Zone
  • Maintenence Depot
  • Mine
  • Minerals
  • Observation Post
  • Oil Field
  • Outpost
  • Palace
  • Parliament
  • Police Station
  • Port
  • Power Station
  • Prison
  • Railway
  • Religious Building
  • Residence
  • Supply Dump
  • Training Base
  • TV
  • University
  • Warehouse

2.4 Defences

There are several different types of defences which arise through varying processes. They include dug in units, entrenchments, fortifications, barbed wire and ditch obstacles and mine fields.

2.4.1 Dug In

Units automatically become dug-in after two turns without moving. Whilst dug in they gain a 50% bonus (x1.5 multiplier) on their defensive factor. They loose their dug in factor as soon as they move.

2.4.2 Entrenched

Units automatically become entrenched after seven turns without moving. Whilst entrenched in they gain a 100% bonus (x2 multiplier) on their defensive factor. They loose their entrenched factor as soon as they move.

2.4.3 Fortified

Fortification features are permanent features on the map and are represented by fortification graphic that encircles the hex. All units within a fortified hex gain a 200% bonus (x3 multiplier) on their defensive factor. Fortification bonuses override any dug in or entrenched bonuses.

2.4.4 Terrain

Certain terrain modifies the defensive factors of units in the hex. The defensive bonus is detailed on the respective terrain description in section 2.1. Defensive bonuses are cumulative, so a unit in hills this a defensive bonus of x2 that becomes dug in will receive a bonus of x3.0 and a unit that becomes entrenched will receive a bonus of x4 and a unit in a fortified hex in hills will get a bonus of x6. These are defensive bonuses and are not effected by other defensive features such as barbed wire and mines that reduces the attackers strength.

2.4.5 Earthworks

Earthworks includes ditches, tank traps, barb wire and the variety of devices applied to restrict an enemies movement through a hex, usually towards a defended feature or line. Earthworks are detailed by a small yellow icon in the bottom right of a hex. Units that move into a hex that contained barbed wire immediately stop and have a move of 0 which means that can no longer attack or fire. Hexes with earthworks have limited stacking to two units. Earthworks are either on the map as part of the scenario or can be added and removed by engineering units. Units attacking into earthwork hexes have their attack strength reduced by 10%.

2.4.6 Mine Fields

Mine fields are represented by small red icons in the bottom left of a hex. When a unit enters a hex with mines that enter a screen that prompts the player to confirm they want to continue. If they do, a damage check is made which is detailed in the next screen and the units move is reduced to 0 meaning they cannot move, attack or fire for the remainder of the turn. The amount of damage that the mines do is based on the mine density which typically ranges from 1 to 4 with 1 being more common. A player can determine the mine density if they have engineers that can enter the hex. Minefields are generally places on the map as part of the scenario, but engineers can also lay and clear mines. An engineering unit can lay mines to 1 level and no further. They can clear mines at a rate equal to their strength rating. Once an engineering unit has either laid or cleared mines they require 6 complete friendly turns (12 turns in total) to be available for any other similar actions. Minefield also encompass urban minefield such as buildings with ieds and road side ieds.

2.5 Streams and Rivers

Streams and rivers follow hex sides and effect movement and combat.

2.5.1 Streams

Steams are a thinner dark blue line. Steams have an attack modifer of 0.7. All units can move over a stream but they then end their movement.

2.5.2 Rivers

Rivers are a thicker light blue line. Rivers at bridge crossings have an attack modifer of 0.4. Units cannot otherwise attack over a river. Armour can fire over a river during combat. No units can move over a river other then special forces, marines and amphibious units.

2.6 Elevations

Elevations represent contours in the land and are colour coded in steps. There is no way of checking elevations at the moment other than by sight, however, the higher the elevation the darker the hex. So, a base desert hex will look like the desert hex in the terrain section of these rules, whilst a desert higher elevation desert hex will be slightly darker and a lower elevation desert hex slighlty lighter.

2.6.1 Combat effects of elevations

The effect of elevations on combat calculated by the difference in elevations with the resultant factor being applied to the respective attacking unit as per the table below.

  • 60 : 3.2
  • 50 : 2.9
  • 40 : 2.5
  • 30 : 1.9
  • 20 : 1.5
  • 10 : 1.2
  • 0 : 1
  • -10 : 0.9
  • -20 : 0.7
  • -30 : 0.5
  • -40 : 0.3
  • -50 : 0.2
  • -60 : 0.1

It is worth noting that you will rarely see a difference beyond +-10.

For example, if you are in a hex one shade higher than the target hex your attack factors will be multiplied by 1.2. This is calculated per unit and so units from adjacent hexeswill bas their factor on the hex they are in.

3.0 Movement

A units movement factor is the third number of the counter, usually 3 for infantry and 6 for motorised units. Once you have eleceted to move a unit you must finish its movement which is considered finished when you let go of the counter.

3.1 Stacking

Stacking is limited to 5 units or a total strength value of 45 per hex. Stacking in hills is limited to 2 units and stacking in mountains limited to 1 unit. Stacking is limited to 2 units in hexes with earthworks.

3.2 Zones Of Control

When you move into a ZOC your unit will stop and not be able to move any further. However, they will still have movement potential. This will be flagged up as a -x factor. So if a mechanised unit with a movement of 6 moved into an enemy hex on a road at a cost of 1 movement point they would then have -5 movement indicated. This means they cannot continue movement normally. However, they can still engage in combat. If they win a combat they will have 2 movement points deducted from their movement and leaving 3 movement points which they can spent normally.

3.3 Air Insertion

Air insertion is carried out by moving unots available for air insertion onto the map. Available units will be shown in the bottom tool bar with the air units. They appear in their own boxed section. When you drag the unit onto the map and drop them in a hex you will be diverted to a commitment screen that will show the target hex and surrounding hexes to give you an idea of the amount of offensive fire power you will recieve. If you are happy with the placement of your unit then you press the air insert button and the offensive fire against your insertion will be calculated, deamge resolved and you will then be returned to the screen where you see the results. From there you can navigated back to the game where you will see your inserted unit on the map.

3.4 Air Extraction

Air extration works slightly differently to air insertion. Only certain units can be air extracted, special forces, paratroopers, air mobile and small infantry units. Special forces and air mobile units must be 5 or less strength points whilst small infantry units must be 2 or less strength points. Air extraction is carried out by air transport units from the air pool. Each air transport unit can lift one combat unit out. To initiated an air extraction, simply drag the air transport counter to the units or unit stack that you want to extract. You will then go to an air extraction section where you can gauge the offensive fire you will be up against, select the units you can to extract and commit to an extraction. When you commit to an extraction the battle calculations will be made and results determined and you wil be shown a page with the results. From there you can go back to the map. Successfully extacted units will be available for air insertion once again in 4 turns. Offensive fire will have a varied number of effects ranging from delayed redeployment through to elimination of air and ground units.

3.5 Exploitation

Any motorised, mechanised or armoured unit (and equivelent) can move one or two hexes after combat if they they entered the combat stationery, ie did not otherwise move. They must move into the vacated hex and can then optionally move a further hex OR engaged in a second combat. All other units can enter the vacated hex with relevent stacking limits observed.

4.0 Disruptions

When units suffer in combat they gain depression factors. Depression factors effect combat and defence strength. Depression can be regained at 1 point per turn without movement (full recovery can be carried out unlike in the eb version). For example, if a unit receives 2 depression factors it can spend 2 turns not moving to reorganise to 0 depression factors. Effects of depressions are as follows (different from web version).:
  • 1-2: Loose 1 point of defence/stregnth (cannot go below 1)
  • 3-5: Half defence/stregnth (cannot go below 1)
  • 5+: Cannot advance towards any enemy
  • 7+: Cannot carry out attacks, can only defend
  • 10: Must move away from enemy at least 1 hex per turn
Disruptions are marked with number counters 1-10 and cannot go higher than 10.

5.0 Leaders

Leaders add bonus in combat based on their rating. The factor is 10% for each factor. so a 2 point leader will add 20 to all units with its command radius that are under its command. Leaders are not used much in the game at the moment.

6.0 Morale

Morale checks are made once a unit goes over 5 depression factors (units under 5 depressions do not need to check). The check is modified by certain factors, for example, dug in is +1 on that factor, entrneched +2 and fortified is +3 (not cumulative). Units check each time they are under air stikes, artillery fire or when they are involved in combat resulting in an exchange, a defender retreat as well as attrition combat and seiges.

Morale is calculated by rolling a D10 modified by the following:
  • +1 for each depression over 5
  • -1 for each leader factor
A score of 10 or more is a route.

7.0 The Turn

The turns alternate, player 1 then player 2 etc.. etc.. When player 1 has finished their turn they press 'End Turn' and then player 2 can move their units. If you are playing remotely you will need to communicate in some manner to your opponent that you have completed your turn. There is the possibility for future JavaScript based turn indicators that will alert and refresh the page when its your turn but that is not certain. Multi-player is not currently active. During the turn you can choose to carry out any action as you like, for example, move and fire or fire and move. However, if you fire you movement will be reduced to 0 and so you wont be able to move.

7.1 Turn Structure

  1. Active player can move units, engage in combat, carry out air and naval movements and combats and all other actions in any order they choose. Units that are not moving or carrying out any activity can be marked as not moving.
  2. At the end of the active players turn, the active player's units that did not move at all can have their depressions reduced by 1.

8.0 Objectives

Objectives are shown on the map in coloured boxes, either red or green, indicating whose control they are in. Objectives are generally used to indicate the relative objectives in any historical scenario. There are no global points awarded for capturing objectives and no victory conditions as such. Objectives are guides for devising strategy.

8.1 Capturing Objectives

Most objectives require capturing and can exchange sides through out a game. To capture an objective you need to place a unit in the objective hex and wait for it to reduce the objective score shown on the map. The objective score will change change based on the occupying units strength. As such, a 2 strength unit will change an objectives score by 2 points per turn. Objectives start at either a positive of negative number. Each player will be seeking to change the objective score to either the positive or negative end of the scale. For example, if an objective is rated 10, then the opposing player must get the score to -10. If they have a 2 strength unit in the hex then that will take 10 turns. If they can get a total of 8 strength units points in the hex then that will take about 3 turns. The opposing player will need to swing the score back from -10 to 10 in order to regain the objective.

8.2 Destroying Objectives

Destroying objective hexes works in exactly the same way as capturing a hex but once the respective player has destroyed a hex, it cannot be recaptured. For example, a bridge might have a score of 5. Once it is reduced to -5 it is considered destroyed and cannot be recovered in the context of the game.

9.0 Air Power

Air units are handle off map at the bottom of the screen in the game tool bar.

9.1 Air To Ground Attacks

To carry out air to ground attacks, simply drag your available air units from the game tool bar to the target hex. You will then go through to a ground combat screen where you will be asked to confirm your ground attack. You will also see any surrounding ground units that can interdict your attack with small arms fire as well as air defence units that are within range.

9.2 Air Superiority

Air superiority is carried out by moving air units into the red air superiority box. Air superiority activity costs half a turns activity. For example, if you have 10 sorties you can carry out 10 ground attacks or 20 counter air patrols. Air superiority is absolute, either one side has it or the other (or neither). If one side has air superiority, the other side can contest it by adding an air unit during their turn to the air superiority box. This will then initiate a combat sequence during which the attacking player allocates air units to the battle. The battle is then resolved. Air units in the battle can be aborted from the battle, leaving them available for future use, destroyed or in the case of the winner, left in the air superiority box. The player that has air superiority will have their air units available to defend land hexes in the same way that air defence units are allocated in ground combat. This means that the side without air superiority can still fly ground attack missions, but at a much higher risk, depending on the degree of opponent air superiority, of being interdicted.

9.3 Air Superiority Resolution

Air superiority is resolved when a player moves air units into the air superiority box when there are already opposing units there. The active play then allocates which units are fighting which units, one at a time in an even spread. For example, if each side has three aircraft, then each enemy plane would have an opposing plane allocated to fight it. If the attacking player had six aircraft, they would allocated two aircraft against each opposing aircraft. If the attacker had 7 vs 3 then they would allocated two units against each of two other opposing units and three against another. In other words you cannot put 7 vs 1 and 0 vs the other two or 5 vs 1 and 1 vs 1 in the other two cases. The attacks have to be spread out, but the active player can concentrate stronger factors as they feel fit. Once allocated, You carry out each combat. The second number on the air unit is used and each player rolls a D6(six sided die) and adds their air combat value. Each combat is a 1 to 1, so if you have 3 vs 1 then you carry out 3 combats, one after the other, you dont add all three units together. If the results are the same, the combat is a stand off and the units stay on the board. If the difference in 1 or 2 then the loosing player puts their air unit back in the combat pool. If the difference is 3 or more then the loosing play looses their air unit. Once the first round has been carried out, ie the attacking play has caaried out a combat for each of his units, then the combat cycles back to the first units which are similarly allocated for an even spread, however, after the first full round, either player can pull out if desired.
  • 0: Stand-off
  • 1-2: Loser Aborted
  • 3+: Loser Eliminated

10.0 Sea Power

Naval units can move about on the map in sea hexes.

11.0 Combat

Combat is carried out in its own screen. To initiate combat move a chit into an enemy hex. Before you do that make sure you have all your other units positioned accordingly.

Once in the combat screen you will then select any units with available movement from the surrounding hexes that will take part in the combat by checking them. Only units with at least 1 movement point can take part in combat. Once you have selected the units you then press ATTACK and the combat will be resolved.

If you win the combat and the enemy is either eliminated or retreats you might have the option to advance. Undertaking combat uses 2 movement points. If you only had 1 movement point then you can still engage in combat. after combat you will be able to continue moving as normal if you have the movement points.

Artillery and rockets can fire at range alone or as part of a combined action. Artillery expend 2 movement points in a combat and so can possibly engage in more than 1 attack a turn. This rule needs working through currently as motorised units have greater rates of fire.

Armour will be able to fire 2 hexes but that is not currently available.

You gain a bonus for each additional hex you occupy. If you don’t occupy any surrounding hexes there is a corresponding penalty..

11.1 Unit Modifications In Combat

Certain units will have modifications to their combats strengths depending on the combination of units involved. The unit combinations are:
  • Tank VS Infantry 1.7
  • Tank VS Infantry in urban 0.8 (not operational)
  • Mechanised VS Infantry 1.5
  • Tank VS Motorised 1.5
  • Tank VS Mechanised 1.2
  • Anti-Tank VS Tank and Mechanised only 10.0
  • Anti-Tank VS Tank and Mechanised mixed with other units 4.0
  • Infantry VS Mechanised 0.75
  • Infantry VS Tank 0.5
  • Infantry VS Tank in urban 1.2 (not operational)
  • Air Defence VS Non-Air 0.1


11.2 Combat Results

Once you have calculated the odds, rolla D12 and refer to the table below:

  1-4 1-3 1-2 1-1 2-1 3-1 4-1 5-1 6-1 7-1

The results are simple to resolve:
  • AR: Attacker retreats for 3 depressions
  • EX: Both sides take 1 Sepression
  • DR: Defender retreats with 2 depressions (note insurgent special rules)
  • DE: Defender suffers elimination check. If they fail they are removed from play, if they pass they suffer 3 depressions and retreat. To check for elimination, roll 1D10 and if the result is less than their dperesion level they are eliminations. As such, fresh units suffering DE results will never be eliminated.

Notes on retreat: Retreat is into a hex not in an enemy ZOC. If no none enemy ZOC hexs exist, then player choses accordingly. If there are no available hexs to retrat into then the retreating units are eliminated.

11.3 Example Combat Calculation

I like to think that the player will be considering the combat factors whilst making attacks. From experience, I believe that all movement is aimed at achieving the right situation to attack and that attack is an important process which is why I have a separate screen where the important decision can be made. To shed a little more light on the maths, the odds are calculated in the following way:

Attack = Strength * Flank Factor * Leadership Factor * Unit Match Factor.

Defence is calculated similarly only there is an additional entrenchment factor and terrain factor.

Note, depression factors are differnt than on the web.
  • 1-2 Depressions = -1 point of strength or defence
  • 3-5 Depressions = half strength or defence
Defence = Strength * Entrenchment * Leadership Factor * Terrain.

So, for example, a single tank unit of strength 5 attacking an infantry unit of strength 4 in desert terrain with the following factors, no flank, leader or depression factors would be at 8.5. the defending infantry not entrenched or dug in and without a leader or depression would defend at 4 and so the odds would be 8.5 to 4 or 2-1.

So, if the attack gained infantry support with a 4 strength unit and a 1 point leader but the tank had 1 depression although they had 1 hex flank, ie attacking from two hexes against the same infantry unit their odds would be:

(((5-1)) * 1.1 * 1.7) + (4 * 1.1)) * 1.1 = 13

Essentially 2-1.

However, if the defender dug in and was supported by a 3 strength mechanised unit with 2 depressions and had a 1 point leader the attacking armours factor would go down to 1.2 because the armour was not attacking infantry on its own.

The odds would now be:

Attacker = (((5-1) * 1.1 * 1.2) + (4 * 1.1)) * 1.1 = 10.12

Defender = ((4 * 1.5 * 1.1) + ((3-1) * 1.5 * 1.1)) = 10.56

The adjusted attacking force would have an attack strength of 10.12, and so the attack would be 1-2.

The die roll is a 1-12, which offers a broad result. I don’t like the mean of 2d6.

As such, you should be able to roughly calculate your odds before battle.

Note: In print and play it is up to you, at the start to determine how many factors you incorporate, for simplicity sake. For example, to make it easy you could simply make a direct comparison of factors not including leader values or flanking bonuses. However, I suggest that one you get the hang of it, it becomes quite simple.

Alternativly, you can choose the lowest deprssion value and factor that against the whole stack. Just be consistent.

11.4 Sieges

Fortified hexes can be sieged. The rules are a little complex and might well need some graphics which I wont be doing any time soon.

Essentially to siege a fortified hex you need to have units within the surrounding hexes that exert a ZOC across all hexes surrounding a target fortified hex. The simplest way to do that is to place two units, one on one side of the target fortified hex and the other in the opposite hex.

When you meet this base requirement and initiate a combat and SELECT the respective units you will get a box appear that will allow you to select siege instead of the regular assault.

The benefit of a siege is that you will receive no damage. The besieged units will receive between 0.4 and 1.4 damage.

however, if you then add more units into the other surrounding hexes the damage you inflict will be greater by increments of 0.1. As such, if you had 4 units besieging a fortified hex you would inflict between 0.7 and 1.7 damage.

If the besieged does nothing, ie does not move or attack they will recover 1 depression each turn thus negating the damage inflicted. As such it can be a slow process.

A siege can be broken if the besieged player has a friendly unit in any of the surrounding hexes.

Essentially, the option to siege a fortified hex will automatically appear if you qualify for that option, so just play about if you are uncertain.

It is worth noting that siege activity is quite rare. You need to bridge the small margin between being outnumbered enough to not be able to assault the fortified hex whilst at the same time being strong enough to not be vulnerable to a counter attack by the besieged units.

A good example would be a fortified hex in a mountain with a unit with 2 defence. Their total defence would be 6 for the mountain and then 18 for the fort. If they are surrounded by similar 2 strength units in hills they will not be able to counter attack those units as they themselves would be worth 4 in defence making attacks at 1-2.

Besieged units can always fight their way out, and in situations where there are only 2-5 surrounding hexes occupied they can even walk out into the empty hex. However, they of course leave the fortified hex and presumably give it up to the enemy.

Generally the idea with siege warfare is to reduce your enemy to a level that you can then commit an assault at favourable odd.

Siege activity is very slow, and it might not suit your game play if you want a quick game. However, the mechanics are designed to reflect the long term nature of siege activity and when you are trying to play to historical orders of play then the rule is there to give you that functionality.

11.5 Ranged Fire

Ranged fire can be carried out by ground air and naval units, including artillery, rockets, aircraft, helicopters and ships. To carry out ranged fire, move your unit into the target hex. So for example, to carry out a naval bombardment, drag your ship into the ground hex that you want to target. If your unit is in range it will go to the ranged fire screen. If not then you are either out of range or otherwise ineligible to attack, for example, having already moved or fired in your turn.

Ranged fire is slightly different in print and play than the web version because of the complexity in maths and is simplifed for print and play. Ranged fire is carried out in two parts.
  • Hit Determination
  • Damage Determination
Hit Determination is carried out for each unit in s hex stack: Roll 1D6 modified by the following:
  • -1 for each hex over 2.
  • +1 for battalion formations
  • +3 for Regiment formations and higher
  • -1 for each additional unit.
You need to score 2 or higher to hit. For example, artillery firing at 4 hexes into a stack of 3 companies would need a roll of 4 to hit the first units, 5 for the second and 6 for the third unit.

Damage Determination is carried out on a D10 with the following modifiers based on the modified attack/defence ratios.
  • 1-4 or less: -9
  • 1-3: -8
  • 1-2: -8
  • 1-1: -7
  • 2-1: -7
  • 3-1: -6
  • 4-1: -6
  • 5-1: -5
  • 6-1: -5
  • 7-1 or higher: -4
As such, an artillery unit firing with a strength of 4 against an infantry unit with 5 defence (1-2) would roll a 1D10 - 8. Terrain modifiers and entrenchments are also used. So if the unit was in hills its defence would be doubled etc.

All artillery strikes that hit, regardless of damage cause morale checks.

11.6 Attrition

Attrition is used where the odds are not quite worth the risk of a full assault, for example of two equal strength units in mountain hexes. Attrition allows you to commit to small scale engagments along the front line and possibly reduce the strength of the opposing player. To carry out attrition, commit to combat in the normal way, select your units and select the attrition option. After attrition combat your units will have 0 movement but they will not loose dug in factors or entrenchments, and will also increase their dug in level in the normal way as though they had not moved. Attrition calculations are carried out by both sides calculating their combat factors in the normal way, including terrain bonuses and dug in bonesses and the like. Each side then rolls a random number from 0 to their combat factor. For example, if two units in mountain hexes with strengths and defences of 3 were engaged in attrition comabat, the odds would be 3 to 9, which is not good. However, in attrition there is no risk for the attacker. Each side rolls. If the 3 strength player rolls a 3 and the defender rolls a 0, the difference is 3. The difference is then divided by 5 resulting in a depression loss of 0.6 on the defender. The maximum attrition loss is 2.

12.0 Reinforcements

Reinforcements will appear on the map as per the game overview order of battle. For example, if a unit is shown as coming on on turn 12 it will appear in turn 12 in a given hex.

13.0 Print And Play

The game offers Print and Play functionality. Once logged in you will see an option by each game to print it as well as play it. When you click print you will go to a page that has been formatted for print. You might need a bit of creativity to scale the printing to suit your requirements and some assembly in putting the map together, depening on how you print it. All of this is down to you.

13.1 Supporting Counters

You can find supporting counters here.
You can find player aids here.

13.2 Print And Play Rules

You can find the Print and Play rulebook here.

13.3 Additional Requirements

As well as the usual gaming suppliments such as a board or table etc you will need a number of dice. In particular a D12 as well as a number of other dice yest to be determined. You might also benefit from having a piece of paper.

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